Commercial contracts in Spain are governed by the Code of Commerce. Knowing its legislation is fundamental to carry out any operation in a secure way such as acquisitions and sales of companies, joint ventures, OPAs, OPVs, commercial sales as well as any kind of contract (representation, commercial distribution, national sale of merchandise, intra and extra EU, etc.).

Elimination of licenses for store openings for businesses in Spain

In the Boletin Oficial del Estado (the BOE, or Official Reporter for the State) published on May 26 the Royal Decree-Law 19/2012, of May 25, on urgent measures to liberalize trade and certain services, which was put into effect on May 27. Among other objectives, the standard aims to reduce the administrative burdens that hinder […]

Contract Spain

New Incoterms Rules for International Contracts

Incoterms are trade terms arising from business practices whose scope is limited to the rights and obligations of sellers and buyers in sales contracts. They are not laws, but rules and recommendations which facilitate international commercial trade. Incoterms rules were first published in 1936 by the International Chamber of Commerce and in general are reviewed […]

Inversión internacional en españa

International distribution contracts within the European Union

In this Article we will discuss the principle types distribution contracts, specifically the contracts by which one company (the principal employer or grantor) sells to another (the company distributor or dealer) its products for distribution in the market. This is a widespread commercial formula used to facilitate the entry and placement of products in international […]


The Convention on the International Sale of Goods or CISG

Introduction This short article intends to introduce the Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG) and illustrate its common-law differences.  Therefore, this article may be informative for foreign companies who engage in international contracts for the sale of goods with companies residing in common-law jurisdictions. Knowledge of the common-law implications of the CISG can […]


How to validate documents in Spain for recognition in foreign countries

Whether a foreign country recognizes a Spanish public document is an international legal issue. The international community addressed the issue of recognition of public documents in foreign countries with the Hague Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalization for Foreign Public Documents (Hague Convention of 1961).  A party interested in temporary or […]

Special Rule to the Legal Structure of Foreign Investment in Spain

Special Rule If it is to do with negotiable securities then there is an obligation for companies of investment services or credit entities according to Law 24/1988 of the Securities market to declare the deposit or administration of securities. In circumstances where it is to do with non-negotiable securities but where the parties have deposited […]

International Contracts

Culture and Contracts for International Lawyers  Lawyers working in international law oftentimes interpret, review, and advise their clients on contracts written by other international lawyers in foreign countries.  Considering the great possibility for legal, linguistic, and cultural misinterpretations, it is important for international lawyers to become familiar with the types of contractual clauses that they […]

Channels for Foreign Investments in Spain

Who can be an owner of foreign investments in Spain? The criteria that defines what it is to be an owner is exposed in article 2 of the Royal Decree 664/1999. Non-residents of Spain: Spanish citizens or non-Spanish citizens that reside outside of Spain. This is independent of the location of residence in Spain or […]

The Legal Structure of foreign investment in Spain: basic legal principals

The basic legal principles in relation to foreign investment in Spanish territory are found in various legislative instruments: Article 73 B of the treaty of the European Union — which dictates that any restriction on the movement of capital is prohibited between member states and between member states and third countries and consequently, all restrictions […]

The meaning of being an international lawyer

What is the actual meaning of being an international lawyer nowadays? Clients do not only need an expert in law, but an interpreter for the international context. Most of the clients of a lawyer operate their business in the international market. It is really common to find clients from X country, with their companies based […]