The procurador profession is specific to Spain and remains essential for the development and simplification of the judicial procedures in the country. Despite this character has been continuously questioned, their role is fundamental to facilitates the communication between the clients and the court.
Litigation is a process that involves determining issues through a court, with a judge or jury. Arbitration involves two parties in a dispute who agree to work with a third party in an attempt to resolve the dispute. Other alternative conflict resolution methods are mediation and conciliation.
Arbitration, as an alternative to judicial procedures for conflict resolution, has certain characteristics that make it highly recommended. Its advantages are, on the one hand, the quickness of the procedure, and on the other, the freedom that it offers in choosing the way in which procedures are conducted, such as the language, the place or the regulations applicable to them.
Art. 46 of the Arbitration Act 2003 (Act 60/2003) under « Foreign Status of awards», ensures the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards. Law 29/2015 of 30 July (International Cooperation in civil matters) applies to civil and commercial matters.
Law on Arbitration 60/2013 guarantees that the foreign arbitral award will be recognised and performed in Spain. Nevertheless, issues may arise and thus national jurisdictions may oppose the recognition and performance of foreign arbitral awards.
Since October 2015, a website brings together notarial and judicial auctions in Spain. A citizen with prior registration and deposit will be able to consult and participate in an auction. Auctions affect both real estate and personal property, including those that would have been mortgaged.
The new Regulation relating to the jurisdiction, recognition, and enforcement of judgements in civil and commercial matters is a step further in the process of European integration in the field of Judicial Administration, given that it simplifies and accelerates the enforcement of rulings issued in other European Union Member States.
In 2011, the entity Bankia made a public offering of shares (IPO), where the detail brochure, the only informative channel for small investors, distorted the veracity of the entity’s accounts. Five years later, the Supreme Court ratified the nullity of the purchase of shares.
An out-of-court settlement is a legal arrangement between parties outside of court and without a trial. Some of its benefits are the reduction in expenses and stress, its greater privacy, its predictability, finality and flexibility. In Spain, the modification to the Bankruptcy Act has introduced out-of-court settlement as an alternative to contestations and formal refinancing agreements.
In October 2015, the limitation period for actions to reclaim debts and obligations involving business relations as well as for the provision of services in Spain has been reduced when there is a contract and law does not specify a particular deadline. This measure will affect numerous legal actions.
Council Regulation No. 44/2001 contains the rules applicable to enforce a civil or commercial judgement in another European member state. However, Spain, with no bilateral agreements, follows the Hague Convention.