Although the center of main interests of a company is presumably its registered office, courts admit refutation of this presumption if brought by the creditors.
Insolvency or bankruptcy, take place when a company fail to pay their debts. Insolvency declaration leads to a bankruptcy proceeding. Corporate restructuring takes place when a company encounters a difficult situation and management decides to change the outer and inner structure and direction of the company.
The entry into force of the Law transposing Directive (EU) 2019/1023 introduces reforms in the insolvency field to provide agile and effective instruments to improve insolvency procedures and facilitate the maintenance of viable companies in Spain. Restructuring plans are one of the central elements.
The bankruptcy moratorium in Spain, in force since 14 March 2020 and already extended several times, ends on 30 June 2022.
After the insolvency proceedings begin, creditors have a one-month limit to communicate their claims against the insolvent debtor.
The Government of Spain has extended the bankruptcy moratorium for the third time until 30th June 2022. Insolvency debtors will not have a legal obligation to file for bankruptcy until the middle of next year.
Regarding the termination of contracts with reciprocal obligations in the context of bankruptcy declaration, the Spanish regulations distinguish between contracts pending fulfilment by one of the parties or by both parties.
The deadline for the communication of credit by the foreign creditor is one month after the publication of the declaration of bankruptcy in the Spanish Official Gazette (BOE). Although it is not mandatory, the foreign creditor should make such communication for its qualification and subsequent payment.
Declaring insolvency proceedings in Spain entails its consideration as “main bankruptcy” and implies the inclusion of the debtor’s assets, regardless of whether or not they are in Spain, and that, with certain exceptions, Spanish law applies.
Spanish bankruptcy regulations list the conducts that determine the liability of the directors in bankruptcy proceedings. The consequences of such behaviour include disqualification, loss of rights associated with the position of a creditor of a bankruptcy or a sentence to cover the insolvency deficit.
Although Royal Decree-Law 5/2021 exempts directors from the duty to file for insolvency proceedings, it does not exempt them from the responsibility to avoid the winding-up of the company.