Personal guarantees include personal securities, which can be characterized as an ancillary obligation, since it depends on the main obligation, and as a subsidiary obligation as well, in that only if the principal debtor fails to comply is it possible to demand payment of the debt from the guarantor.
Banking and Finance law addresses the legal footing for the structuring and formalization of structured finance, refinancing and capital market operations. It ranges from asset financing through loans or lines of credit, with or without collateral, to consumer credit or leasing agreement operations.
Among enforceable personal contractual guarantees, the bank guarantee payable on first demand stands out. With this type of guarantee, a banking institution commits to respond to the fulfilment of an obligation, automatically and immediately, and without the ability to demand clear evidence of noncompliance.
Contract guarantees are types of contracts that provide greater security to the settlement of a debt. In Spain there are different types of guarantees: personal guarantees, security rights, financial guarantees or constitutional guarantees.
Recent judgments on abusive clauses oblige institutions and professionals who offer personal loans to consumers residing in Spain to review and adapt the clauses to legal constraints. Find here practical advice to implement.
Consumer loans in Spain are monitored by government regulatory agencies for their compliance with consumer protection regulation. The Bank of Spain (together with the Spanish National Securities Exchange Commission) is the government body that exercises general supervisory powers over domestic credit institutions.
Fintech is on the rise and competing with financial institutions. Fintech firms offer consumers benefits such as more and easier options for funding. However, there is a catch. While offering benefits to consumers who would be unable to receive such benefits via traditional financial institutions, these fintech services also create risks for consumers.
The incorporation of a new company in Spain to undertake consumer credit activities does not require a specific regulatory license given that the new company will not be incorporated as a credit institution.
When considering whether an exemption applies to a consumer credit agreement (which would take the agreement outside the scope of regulation of the CCA), care must be taken to consider the precise terms of the relevant exemption.
One of the basic pillars of the Consumer Credit Agreement Law in Spain (Law 16/2011) is the development of the regulation of the pre-contracting process; that is, the steps prior to a creditor and a consumer entering into a consumer credit agreement.
In Spain, Law 16/2011 derogated the previous legal regime (dating back to 1995) and transposed Directive 2008/48 of 23 April 2008 on credit agreements for consumers (the “Directive”) into Spanish law. Law 16/2011 reproduces the provisions of the Directive. Furthermore, where the Directive has failed to include specific provisions, the old regime has been maintained or even extended to new scenarios, with the aim of increasing the protection granted to Spanish consumers.